# SAXS#

Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) can be extracted using MAICoS. To follow this how-to guide, you should download the topology and the trajectory files.

First, we import Matplotlib, MDAnalysis, NumPy and MAICoS:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import MDAnalysis as mda

import maicos


The water system consists of 510 water molecules in the liquid state. The molecules are placed in a periodic cubic cell with an extension of $$25 \times 25 \times 25\,\textrm{Å}^3$$.

Create a MDAnalysis.core.universe.Universe and define a group containing only the oxygen atoms, and a group containing only the hydrogen atoms:

u = mda.Universe('water.tpr', 'water.trr')

group_O = u.select_atoms('type O*')
group_H = u.select_atoms('type H*')


## Extract small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) intensities#

Let us use the maicos.saxs class of MAICoS, and apply it to all atoms in the systems:

saxs = maicos.Saxs(u.atoms).run(stop=30)


Note: SAXS computations are extensive calculations. Here, to get an overview of the scattering intensities, we reduce the number of frames to be analyzed from 101 to 30, by adding the stop = 30 parameter to the run method. Due to the small number of analyzed frames, the scattering intensities shown in this tutorial should not be used to draw any conclusions from the data.

Extract the $$q$$ values and the averaged SAXS scattering intensities scat_factor from the results attribute:

q_vals = saxs.results.q
scat_factor = saxs.results.scat_factor


The scattering factors are given as a 1D array, let us look at the 10 first lines:

print(scat_factor[:10])

[1.62620077 0.91205581 1.32064346 0.00437081 0.5200794  0.99437988
0.65559656 1.22011011 0.77341697 0.43263536]


By default, the binwidth in the recipocal $$(q)$$ space is 0.005 1/Å.

Plot the structure factors profile using:

fig, ax = plt.subplots()

ax.plot(q_vals, scat_factor)

ax.set_xlabel(r"q (1/Å)")
ax.set_ylabel(r"S(q) (arb. units)")

fig.show()


## Computing oxygen and hydrogen contributions#

An advantage of full atomistic simulations is their ability to investigate atomic contributions individually. Let us calculate both oxygen and hydrogen contributions, respectively:

saxs_O = maicos.Saxs(group_O).run(stop=30)
saxs_H = maicos.Saxs(group_H).run(stop=30)


Let us plot the results together with the full scattering intensity. Note that here we access the results directly from the results attribute without storing them in individual variables before:

fig, ax = plt.subplots()

ax.plot(q_vals, scat_factor, label="Water")
ax.plot(saxs_O.results.q, saxs_O.results.scat_factor, label="Oxygen")
ax.plot(saxs_H.results.q, saxs_H.results.scat_factor, label="Hydrogen")

ax.set_xlabel(r"q (1/Å)")
ax.set_ylabel(r"S(q) (arb. units)")
ax.legend()

fig.show()


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